What Is A CNC Machine? 7 Best Strategies
2022/03/01 By 兰兹
What is a CNC machine? When choosing equipment for milling, turning, and similar work, each company seeks to find the most reliable, productive, and convenient model. To facilitate these searches, we will consider what a CNC machine is: how it arranges, according to what principles it is programmed and functions, what types it can be, and so on.
What are the uses of CNC machine?
We immediately note that they are in demand today and in all major industries. They carry out metalworking, turning parts with extreme precision (even if the blanks have a complex surface), making furniture and wooden panels, models, souvenirs, plastic toys, and much more. They actively use their advantages, including high productivity.
What is a CNC machine?
Separately, how CNC machines decipher: the abbreviation means Numerical Control. That computerized system sets the conditions for the normal functioning of the table, caliper, and spindle during the technological process. Control is carried out due to unique and timely given commands – codes G and M-type.
As a result, 1 unit of such equipment is as effective as 5-6 conventional ones. Moreover, the operator only needs to turn on the desired scheme, set it up, and monitor its implementation – he does not have to be a qualified turner or miller.
Appropriateness of CNC machine
Keep in mind that this is a relatively expensive technique. What is a CNC machine? In the conditions of modern production, it is profitable to buy and operate a CNC machine in the following situations:
- Manufactured parts are used in especially critical cases. Spare parts for aircraft and transport, elements of medical devices, blades or shafts of turbines for hydroelectric power plants.
- Produced blanks are distinguished by the complexity of the surface, which implies several technological operations in the machining process.
The products are planned to come out in regular and large-scale batches. Especially accurate execution is relevant – within the framework of one of the six first qualifications for admission. In this case, deviations are set by a discrete step of the drive up to 3 µm.
Features of CNC machines: what is it, what are they?
What is a CNC machine? The possibilities of such equipment are pretty broad, and the scope is also, therefore, the classification is quite diverse. But almost all models, regardless of design, have the following distinctive characteristics:
Relatively powerful drive – can be direct current, with stepless spindle adjustment, or variable, three-phase, with a speed of up to 2000 rpm, but always from 20 to 40 kW.
Independent setting and correction of each of the two coordinates, as a result of which the working bodies can move along the most complex trajectories, often even impossible for other control methods.
Rigidity of the configuration with precision
Moreover, increased the rigidity of the configuration with precision (or high) accuracy of workpiece processing. What is a CNC machine? The speed of the adjustment movements of the caliper is 4.8-10 rpm, which minimizes the idle time.
The most comprehensive range of feed adjustment of the stepless drive – with a change of up to 1200-10000 times (from 1 to 1200 or even up to 10000 rpm). Thanks to this, setting the optimal release mode for any part is not a problem.
Classification of machine tools: characteristics and designations
Marking of manufactured models is carried out using letters and numbers. Moreover, they form the article, which reflects the purpose of the equipment, the degree of its automation, and the class of its accuracy. What is a CNC machine? The division is carried out according to several global features – we will consider each in more detail.
How to decipher CNC machines?
By the nature of the operations performed (primary) can be:
- Milling, drilling, and boring – relatively universal, also providing countersinking;
- Turning – for creating threaded connections and drilling, for chuck and center, as well as complex parts;
- Gear-cutting – to ensure the necessary geometry of gears and similar elements;
- Grinding – for cleaning and leveling surfaces;
- Multi-purpose – for complex processing without relocation of the workpiece.
What is a CNC machine? Each group is assigned its number – pay attention to the first digit in the article of the CNC machine; this decoding helps to orientate immediately.
Degree of automation: parameters of the control system
Moreover, all models are also subdivided according to the following parameters of the control system:
- Purpose – with positional, continuous, rectangular, mixed method of control;
- Drive option – with a step, stepper, or adjustable motor;
- The nature of the software download – with installation via disk, tape (perforated or magnetic), flash media;
- The number of simultaneously controlled coordinates and the permissible errors in their introduction.
What is a CNC machine? The article indicates the degree of automation at the end – as F with a number (or letter). Let’s figure out what the CNC machine means with the following marking after F:
- With digital indication and data typed on the keyboard – for one movement per frame;
- The positional (for drilling and boring) or rectangular (for milling or turning) control method;
- With continuous or contour control for processing particularly complex parts;
- With multi-operational operation, combining the above possibilities;
Cyclic is characterized by the low cost and simplicity of the algorithm but is very convenient for serial production of the same blanks.
What is a CNC machine? In terms of production
Let’s look at what a CNC machine is in terms of production. Moreover, its key characteristics depend on which technology group it belongs to:
- For milling, this is the width of the desktop surface;
- Drilling and dull – the maximum possible diameters of the drill and spindle;
- For turning – the largest of the supported hole cross-sections.
Programming principle of CNC machine
Moreover, any model of the considered equipment consists of the following functional units:
- Memory – permanent and operational;
- A cabinet equipped with an operator console;
- A display showing the results;
- Controller – a device that processes the entered data and is responsible for the operation of the drives.
Manually – the technologist enters numerical combinations and thus sets all the coordinates for moving the tools. What is a CNC machine? Not the most convenient option because even an experienced specialist who knows how to work on a CNC machine will take a lot of time and effort to implement it. And only the simplest parts will be able to produce.
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