5-axis CNC Machine in 2022: Best Tips & Tricks
2022/03/24 By LZ
Basic structure of 5 axis CNC milling machine
In space as we know an object exists 6 degrees of freedom, 3 translation along its axis and 3 rotation around its axes. From the image you can easily visualize the axes of motion.
When manufacturing 5-axis CNC machine, in addition to the default 6 axes, the machine manufacturer also adds 3 extra axes: U, V, W.
Currently, some famous manufacturers in the world offer many different types of machine structures, here are some basic types
This is a very common basic structure in small and medium sized machines, usually 2 axis A or B (rotation type A and C are the most common).
With the Head-Head type machine structure, the machine structure is usually large in size, integrated with the 5-sided machining head, then the entire tool head will replace by a 5-sided machining head.
This type of structure is usually medium-sized machine. The table has an automatic pallet change system, in addition, this structure often arranges at the top or standing.
Movements on a 5-axis CNC machine
On a 5-axis milling machine, how do we usually visualize the movements? 3+2 motion or 5 axis simultaneous motion below. I will present the basic movements for us to visualize.
Basically, I will use the illustration, later on to the programming part on my Mastercam. It will go specifically the options in each command, when we will use those commands.
3-axis, 3+2 or 5-axis machining
A or B axis is fixed, the C axis rotates in conjunction with the X, Y, Z axes, usually this is like the movement on a 5-sided machine
What is the default in 5-axis CNC machine?
Normally, some old CNC machines use G68, G11 instructions to rotate or move the origin, when moving or rotating it still takes the origin G54 as the reference origin. With the included options, you only need to declare the rotation angle, the X, Y, Z coordinates of the destination point to finish.
In addition, the process of getting the workpiece origin is also done automatically by the probe.
Basic structure of 5 axis CNC milling machine
In space as we know an object exists 6 degrees of freedom. 3 translation along its axis and 3 rotation around its axes. From the image you can easily visualize the axes of motion.
When manufacturing 5-axis CNC machine, in addition to the default 6 axes, the machine manufacturer also adds 3 extra axes: U, V, W
- XYZ are straight linear axes.
- ABC is the axes of rotation corresponding to XYZ.
- UVW are parallel axes corresponding to XYZ.
So now we want to take the center and run the details as shown below on the machine with automatic probe, how to do?
Check the position of the center of rotation on the 5-axis CNC machine
(PZP) is an acronym for Program Zero Position In the software. We only need to know 2 parameters MRHP and PZP then the tool will run in the original PZP. 5-axis CNC machine explains more carefully in the next section programming guide on Mastercam software.
Using a counter to check the flatness of the table, you can move the probe up to 4 points on the table. Let the C axis rotate around its center, pay attention at this position the A axis must be at the A0 position.
Benefits of 5-axis CNC machining
The UCM-Series 5-axis CNC machine is an efficient method. To reduce mounting settings and increase accuracy. For complex part sets with multiple machined surfaces.
Reduce setup time (jig).
An important reason for using a multi-axis machine is to reduce the setup time for the part. If there are many custom jigs for the subsequent operations. It will be very expensive and time consuming. Most parts can machine in one or two setups, reducing extra jigs and time.
Anytime you move a part from one fixture to another there is a risk of misalignment or both during setup and operation. It is often easy to accumulate errors when milling faces with multiple attachments.
When using a suitable grading table or 5-axis CNC machine, it allows low travel accuracy (short workpiece position change distance), fast cutter speeds and thus increased cutting quality. And more powerful cuts can be obtained with high rotation and high feed rates, while high precision maintain.
Better machined surface quality
Using short knives minimizes deflection while minimizing vibrations and creating smooth and precise cuts.
When using a ball mill it generally recommends that the tip contact point does not rotate around the tip (spinning – the tip is exposed to many places rather than a single point – causing rapid wear).
When tilting the workpiece will be accessible to the entire tool area you desire. Thus, not only improving surface quality but also increasing tool life.
Improve technology capabilities.
Some parts cannot machine on 3-axis machines. And some other products require multiple attachments to process on 3-axis machines. Moreover, you can machine with 5-axis CNC machine for parts using simultaneous movements, and take your workshop work to the next level.
Products processed with simultaneous multi-axis movement
You should note that machining with multiple axes at the same time, the accuracy will be lower than grading machines like 3+2 axes, for example, concurrent machining has low rigidity, so you should only finish machining.
There is always a difference between design and production. Usually if we just talk about design. We don’t talk much about CNC programming. The result when we manufacture those Designed parts leads to many consequences of difficult to complete production.
Moreover, in professional companies, design and production carry out in parallel. 5-axis CNC machine is an ideal solution; engineers can save a lot of time and production costs.
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