Home / Do you want the best tips and tricks for 5-axis CNC machines in 2022?

Do you want the best tips and tricks for 5-axis CNC machines in 2022?

2022/03/24 By 兰兹

5-axis CNC Machine
5-axis CNC Machine

In the hardware processing manufacturing industry, 5-axis CNC machine tools can move along five axes simultaneously to complete complex cutting and forming tasks. However, mastering the operation of a 5-axis CNC machine requires a detailed understanding of its basic structure, operating skills, and details of control. In this blog post, I share the basic structure of 5-axis CNC machines and tips and tricks on better operating them for optimal performance and efficiency.

The basic structure of a 5-axis CNC milling machine

Simply put, a 5-axis CNC machine tool’s basic structure comprises multiple components, including the bed, five motion axes, spindle, tool changer, control system, etc.

Its bed is usually made of cast iron or welded steel, which provides stability and rigidity to support the entire structure while absorbing vibrations during machining operations. The five motion axes equipped are responsible for movement in different directions:
X-axis: Horizontal movement from left to right.
Y-axis: Horizontal movement from front to back.
Z axis: vertical up and down movement.
A-axis: rotate around the X-axis.
B axis: Rotate around the Y axis.
These axes cooperate with each other to enable the machine to approach the workpiece at any angle and direction to perform complex machining operations.

In a 5-axis CNC machine tool, a multi-axis or rotary head mounts the spindle, allowing it to simultaneously move and orient relative to the workpiece along multiple axes. Also, 5-axis CNC machines often have automatic tool changers (ATC) that accommodate multiple cutting tools in a carousel or tool magazine. The entire 5-axis machine tool’s control system consists of a CNC unit and software that converts digital instructions into precise movements of the machine tool’s axes. Workpiece holding system: To secure the workpiece during machining, a workpiece holding system, such as a vise, clamp, or fixture, is also used to prevent the quality of the part from being affected or deformed.

GMU600 Series 5-axis CNC machine 1

Movements on a 5-axis CNC machine

The motion of a 5-axis CNC machine is similar to that of a traditional 3-axis CNC machine, with two additional axes (called the A and B axes) performing rotational motion in addition to movement along the X, Y, and Z directions. This allows the cutting tool to approach the part from different angles and directions, expanding the range of processing. What really makes it stand out is the ability to perform combined linear and rotational motion along multiple axes simultaneously, enabling complex 3D machining operations.

What is the default in a 5-axis CNC machine?

After understanding the basic structure and motion of a 5-axis CNC machine tool, you need to know its default configuration, including the orientation of each axis relative to the workpiece and cutting tool. This orientation determines each axis’s direction and range of motion during the machining operation. For example, the A and B axes can be positioned perpendicular to each other, allowing simultaneous rotation about the X and Y axes respectively. Another default configuration is to ensure adequate tool clearance and workspace around the workpiece. Check to position machine components, such as spindle heads and rotary axes, to avoid collisions with workpieces or fixtures during machining operations.

5-axis CNC Machine 2022

Better machined surface quality

To ensure the accuracy and precision of machined parts, users can take advantage of optical precision measurement systems integrated directly into 5-axis CNC machines. These systems utilize advanced imaging technology, such as laser scanners or optical sensors, to perform real-time measurement and feedback control during machining operations. Users can achieve tighter tolerances and higher-quality surface finishes by continuously monitoring and adjusting machining parameters based on optical measurements.

Better machined surface quality

Improve processing performance

Before machining a part, be very familiar with the material’s properties, such as hardness, toughness, and machinability, as different materials require different cutting speeds, feed rates, and tool geometries for optimal machining performance. Then choose the correct cutting tool for them, including tool material, coating, geometry, and setting cutting-related parameters. While processing, adjust the cutting speed and feed rate parameters as appropriate, to reduce the processing cycle time and improve the surface finish and processing performance.

Use the best techniques to get the best product

5-axis CNC machine tools have better flexibility, accuracy, and efficiency in machining than 3-axis CNC machine tools. Before you officially start processing, you can refer to the best tips and tricks mentioned in the article, and make full use of the machine tool’s capabilities based on understanding its structure to create higher surface finish quality and accuracy and smaller error sizes.

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