What is CNC Lathe machine? 5 Best Features
2022/03/26 By LZ
In the mechanical processing process, CNC lathe machine is one of the equipment that plays the most important role. So, what is a CNC lathe and why should businesses and factories equip this machine, let’s find out through the information in the article below.
What is a CNC lathe?
CNC lathe is a processing equipment for cutting materials (usually wood and metal) commonly used in factories and mechanical workshops. The machine is used to process workpieces of materials with round, shaft or tapered faces, for example some details such as: shaft, wheel, thread, hole, stop ring…
The operating principle of the machine is quite simple, the material will be cut from the workpiece and the lathe system will process the outer surface of the part.
What are the purposes of CNC lathe machine?
In addition, with multi-function lines to round turning, hole turning. CNC lathes are also used for drilling, threading, grooving, polishing… Depending on the user’s settings.
In addition, the design of the CNC lathe can accommodate many different machining tools such as: Grading chuck, milling jig, dynamic head, auxiliary shaft… Of course, traditional mechanical lathes do not have these features.
With the development of technology, the lines of CNC lathes on the market today are constantly improve. The same device can perform many different machining functions. Instead of costing extra for a milling or drilling machine, a CNC multifunction lathe will help you simplify your machining process.
Classification of CNC lathe machine
Lathes are classified according to the number of shafts and functions:
2-axis lathe: These are vertical and horizontal lathes designed with 2 spindles.
3-6 axis lathe: In addition to the main shaft, these lathes will add with many auxiliary shafts to increase flexibility when machining. The machine uses multiple axes and tool systems at the same time, capable of processing parts with complex shapes, minimizing machining time.
CNC lathe: functionally
Universal lathe: Including screw thread lathe and smooth lathe.
Copy lathe: Commonly used when it is necessary to process and cut products with complex shapes, requiring meticulousness and high precision.
Specialized lathe: Quite limited in functionality, used only for machining certain products.
Shortcut Lathe: Machining of heavy-duty parts is the most prominent feature of this lathe.
Vertical lathe: This type of lathe has quite a variety of processing capabilities, used to cut complex and heavy machine parts.
Multi-knife lathe: The device equips with multiple cutters to cut the product.
Structure and Operation
The stand is the part that determines the cutting speed of the CNC lathe machine. It is usually fitted inside with a stepper motor and a spindle. The chuck to hold the workpiece mounts on the spindle head, behind the hydraulic or pneumatic system.
Main shaft drive
The motor of the main shaft can move either unidirectionally or alternately. In there:
- DC motor: Speed regulation by excitation.
- AC motor: Speed regulation by frequency converter.
This part contains hydraulic system, fast operation speed, safety assurance. Normally, when machining non-ferrous metals, the spindle can rotate 8000 rpm. The centrifugal force in this process is very large, the hydraulic system will hold the chuck tightly during operation.
The dynamic position of the CNC lathe machine includes: Centering details, jigs, detailed adjustment …
Tool storage system
It supports the tool holder, allowing the cutter to reciprocate parallel or perpendicular to the main axis. It can hold 8-12 cutters. The accumulator has the ability to change cutters in a short time.
Dashboard: the “brain” of the device
This is one of the most important parts of a CNC lathe. They consider as the “brain” of the device. The control panel will process data from the design file and install specifications, thereby controlling the cutter to process according to the needs of the user.
What are the outstanding features of CNC lathes?
The ability to automate the production process is the most outstanding feature of CNC lathe machine compared to traditional machining equipment. Previously, mechanical lathes required a technician to control for machining. This makes machining speed and productivity greatly dependent on human factors.
In contrast, with the automatic operation controller, the CNC lathe can operate continuously for a long time, without needing to arrange labor for operation. As a result, the enterprise’s outsourcing process will automate, increasing production productivity.
CNC lathe: Flexible operation
Usually, an enterprise has to process parts and products with various shapes and sizes. This requires lathe specifications to constantly change to suit each product.
With a CNC lathe machine, you don’t need to worry about this. Just import the design file into the computer and perform a few simple operations, the device will do the rest to produce the final product that meets the requirements.
High accuracy, product quality assurance
CNC lathes are capable of machining parts with maximum accuracy up to 100%. In particular, despite operating in many different conditions, the equipment still provides products with high homogeneity, beautiful cutting lines, shiny surfaces, ensuring aesthetics.
Why should businesses use CNC lathes?
CNC lathes apply modern technology, so the price is relatively high. However, the investment in this equipment is completely worth it, they will help your business save operating costs throughout its life.
Specifically, modern CNC lathe machine consumes less energy than mechanical lathes, you will save on electricity bills each month. In addition, equipping CNC lathes will minimize the presence of people, businesses will save monthly salaries, costs of health checks, holidays, maternity …
In addition, CNC lathes are rarely damaged, businesses do not need to spend a lot of money on maintenance, repair or replacement services for equipment.
Shorten production time
CNC lathe has a fast cutting speed, producing large output in a short time. Besides, using a CNC lathe helps your business’ machining process will not interrupt on weekends or holidays.
Eliminate product reprocessing
As mentioned in the above section, CNC lathe machine is capable of processing products with high precision, quality assurance and uniformity. As a result, businesses do not need to process the product surface again, just wait for it to cool down and bring the product to market.
This advantage not only helps to optimize processing time but also helps businesses save costs for this stage.
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