Injection Molding Machine: Ultimate Guide 2022
2022/03/01 By LZ
The injection molding machine is common in injection molding machines for the manufacture of three-dimensional parts of various configurations from plastic, metal, rubber.
In the mold of an injection molding machine, one or more parts is easy to produce at the same time. Moreover, it is common in mass or serial production.
What is an injection mold?
Injection molds consist of fixed matrices and movable punches with a cavity inside for forming blanks. Moreover, the material fed into the mold using gating systems, which are cold runner, hot runner and combine. In some designs of forms installation of embedded details is possible.
Injection molding machine to create thin-walled products
Plastic injection molding is common to create thin-walled products of various configurations. However, casting technology allows you to create reinforced and hollow parts, multi-colored and combining various polymeric materials.
The required pressure indicator is from 80 to 200 MPa. Furthermore, at lower pressures, cavities or underfills may form. Exceeding the values \u200b\u200b can lead to the formation of flash.
Sand casting for simple or complex shape in injection molding machine
One of the most common types of casting of bulk billets. Moreover, it is common in the automotive industry, machine tool building and other industries. However, this injection molding machine is common in mass production, production of small series or single items of simple or complex shape.
With such casting, products of low quality obtain. Similarly, there may be voids and various foreign inclusions.
Moreover, usually casting in sand-clay molds is common for the manufacture of frames for the metalworking industry, body elements of machinery and equipment, various wheels, rings and other bulky and heavy workpieces.
Casting in vacuum film injection molding machine
The technology is common for casting any number of products weighing from one kilogram to ten tons, up to several meters in size.
Forms are made in the following order:
- A model kit is cut out of expanded polystyrene or other gas-tight materials;
- Moreover, a preheated synthetic film applies to the model;
Moreover, using a vacuum device, a vacuum creates between the model kit and the film, tightly attracting the film to the model. A layer of chalk limestone clay (flask) applies to the film, covers with dry sand, ram and cover hermetically with a film. However, air removes from the flask using a vacuum device. The model set removes from the finished half-mold from injection molding machine.
All parts are made and assembled into a single form
During the entire technological process, the constituent elements of the mold are under vacuum.
Molten metal pours into the assembled mold. After cooling of the castings, the vacuum device turns off, as a result of which the sand removes from the mold. The casting is easily removed from the mold.
Die casting from aluminum, non-ferrous and ferrous metals
A chill mold is a metal multi-turn mold made of cast iron, aluminum or steel. Moreover, die casting is suitable for the manufacture of products from aluminum, non-ferrous and ferrous metals in injection molding machine.
The die casting technology consists of several stages:
Furthermore, fixing metal half-forms; heating the working mold cavity to a temperature of about 180°C;
lubrication of the surface with a layer of protective refractory coating; pouring molten raw materials through sprues;
In addition, mold cooling; mold opening and casting excavation. Moreover, Castings in a chill mold are of high quality and geometric accuracy of dimensions.
Investment casting: do not require additional processing
The method of obtaining castings is to manufacture a model from low-melting compositions in molds. However, the hardened model takes out of the mold and covered with several layers of suspension and sprinkling, which form a ceramic shell after drying. The model inside the injection molding machine shell melt down, creating a mold shell with thin ceramic walls.
Moreover, a molten mixture pours into the resulting mold, which, after cooling, forms a product that exactly repeats the configuration of the model. Details, according to investment models, are of high quality and surface cleanliness, do not require additional processing.
Casting on gasified models: polystyrene is most suitable
A method for producing cast products using models from materials that turn into gas upon contact with molten metal. Expanded polystyrene is most suitable for this.
Models are made on injection molding machine or by pouring polystyrene of small fractions under pressure into molds, followed by sintering at high temperatures. Moreover, model elements glue or solder into blocks, coated with a fire-resistant coating by pouring or dipping, and formed on a vibrating table into special flasks.
- The molten metal is fed directly onto the model blocks, burning and gasifying the polystyrene.
- The finished castings cooler in the molds, then removed and cleaned of the non-stick coating.
- The casting technology for gasified patterns allows the production of products with smooth, precise shapes.
- Gases formed during the burning of polystyrene removed with extractors.
Centrifugal casting for hollow cylindrical containers
It is common for the manufacture of hollow cylindrical containers. Moreover, the injection molding machine is based on the principle of forming castings in the field of centrifugal forces. The molten metal from the ladle is fed through the filling funnel into a rotating cylinder, the inner side of which is the forming surface.
Shell casting for sequential operations
The technology is common to manufacture highly precise parts with high quality requirements. Moreover, shell molds are made from resin-sand mixture, thermosetting resins, quartz or zircon sand on automatic lines.
Casting includes a number of sequential operations:
- Mixture preparation;
- Production of models in the form of thin-walled shells;
- Assembly and preparation of molds for pouring;
- Metal melting and pouring into finished molds;
- Cooling and extraction of castings;
- Cleaning and shot blasting
Injection molding machine are common for the manufacture of products from cast iron, steel, non-ferrous metals and aluminum. Cheaper are machines with side or straight sprues and cold runner systems.
Technological shrinkage of the forming parts
Moreover, in the manufacture of injection molds, it is necessary to take into account the possible technological shrinkage of the forming parts during the cooling process.
Shrinkage may depend on the following factors:
- The type of materials common for the manufacture of molds;
- The presence of reinforcing fibers;
- Sprue type and size;
- Uniformity of temperature distribution;
- Design features of forms.
The addition of reinforcing fibers to the raw material will help reduce shrinkage phenomena.
Development of Injection mold design
Moreover, the development of the project of injection molding machine carries out on the basis of the technical specifications of the customer. The necessary calculations are performed, a 3D model of the future product creates, and working drawings are made.
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